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    高中英語構詞法幫你記憶更多單詞
    編輯:admin 時間:2019/8/21 11:05:04 來源:中學英語網

    英語中的構詞法主要有三種即轉化法、合成法和派生法。

    一、轉化法

    在英語中,一個單詞由一種詞性轉化為另一種或幾種詞性而詞形不變的方法叫做轉化法。

    1. 動詞轉化為名詞

    ●Let me have a try.
    讓我試試。
    ●They are only allowed to sell soft drinks at school.
    在學校里只準許他們出售不含酒精的飲料。

    2. 名詞轉化為動詞

    ●He shouldered his way through the crowd.
    他用肩膀推開人群前進。
    ●The smell from the kitchen made his mouth water.
    從廚房傳來的氣味使他流口水。

    3. 形容詞轉化為動詞

    ●We will try our best to better our living conditions.
    我們要盡力改善我們的生活狀況。
    ●They tried to perfect the working conditions.
    他們努力改善工作條件。

    4. 形容詞轉化為名詞

    ●He didn’t know the difference between right and wrong.
    他不辨是非。
    ●The old in our village are living a happy life.
    我們村的老年人過著幸福的生活。

    5. 形容詞轉化為副詞

    ●How long have you lived there?
    你在那兒住多久了?

    6. 個別詞在一定場合中可轉化為名詞

    ●Warm clothes are a must in the mountains.
    穿暖和的衣服到山區去是必須的。
    ●Life is full of ups and downs.
    人生有得意時也有失意時。
    ●His argument contains too many ifs and buts.
    他的辯論中含有太多的“如果”和“但是”。

    二、合成法

    由兩個或兩個以上的單詞連在一起合成一個新詞,這種構詞法叫做合成法,合成的詞叫做合成詞。合成詞一般看其詞,知其意。

    1. 合成名詞

    ●名詞/代詞+名詞 newspaper blood-test she-wolf
    ●動詞+名詞 typewriter pickpocket daybreak
    ●形容詞+名詞 greenhouse highway
    ●副詞+名詞 overcoat outside
    ●名詞+v.-ing/v.-ing +名詞 handwriting reading-room freezing-point
    ●動詞+副詞/ 副詞+ 動詞 breakthrough get-together outbreak outcome
    ●名詞+介詞+名詞 sister-in-law editor-in-chief

    2. 合成形容詞

    ●名詞+形容詞/形容詞+名詞 world-famous duty-free large-scale long- term
    ●副詞+形容詞 over-anxious evergreen
    ●名詞+過去分詞 man-made sun-burnt
    ●名詞+現在分詞 peace-loving English-speaking
    ●形容詞+現在分詞 good-looking easy-going
    ●副詞+過去分詞 well-informed widespread
    ●副詞+現在分詞 hardworking far-reaching
    ●形容詞+名詞+ed warm-hearted absent-minded
    ●數詞+名詞+ed three-legged ten-storied
    ●數詞+名詞 one-way five–star
    ●數詞+名詞+形容詞 ten-year-old 800-meter-long
    ●名詞+to+名詞 face –to-face door - to -door

    3. 合成動詞

    ●名詞+動詞 baby-sit sleepwalk
    ●副詞+動詞 outnumber underestimate overwork
    ●形容詞+動詞 whitewash

    4. 合成副詞

    ●形容詞+名詞 meanwhile anyway
    ●形容詞+副詞 everywhere anyhow
    ●副詞+副詞 however
    ●介詞+名詞 beforehand overhead
    ●介詞+副詞 forever

    5. 合成代詞

    ●代詞賓格+self/selves herself themselves
    ●物主代詞+self/selves myself yourselves
    ●形容詞+名詞 anything nothing

    6. 合成介詞

    ●副詞+名詞 inside outside
    ●介詞+副詞 without within
    ●副詞+介詞 into

    三、派生法

    由一個詞加上前綴或后綴構成一個與原單詞意義相近或截然相反的新詞叫做派生法。

    1. 前綴

    除少數前綴外,前綴一般改變單詞的意義,但不改變單詞的詞性。

    (1)表示否定意義的前綴

    ●un- unhappy unfinished undress
    ●dis- disagree disbelieve
    ●in- [il-(在字母l前),im- (在字母m,b,p前),ir- (在字母r前)] inaccurate illegal impolite imbalance irregular
    ●mis- misbehave mislead mistake
    ●non- nonstop nonsmoker

    (2)表示其他意義的前綴

    ●en- “使……”enrich enlarge encourage
    ●inter- “相互”international intercontinental
    ●re- “再,又,重”rethink retell recycle
    ●tele- “遠程的”telescope telephone telegraph
    ●auto- “自動的”automatic automobile
    ●co- “共同”coworker cooperate coexist
    ●anti- “反對,抵抗”antiwar antifreeze antinuclear
    ●multi- “多”multistory multicultural multicolor
    ●bi- “雙,二”bicycle bilingual bilateral
    ●micro- “極小的,微小的”microwave microcomputer
    ●over- “太多,過分”overwork overdo overestimate
    ●self- “自己,本身”self-centered self-confident self-control
    ●under- “在……下面,……下的,不足的”underline, underground, underestimate, underrate

    2. 后綴

    (1)形容詞后綴

    ●-able“可……的,具有……的”acceptable drinkable knowledgeable reasonable
    ●-al“與……有關的”physical, magical, political
    ●-an“屬于某地方的人”American African
    ●-ern“方向”southern, northern, eastern
    ●-ful/ less“(沒)有……的”helpful, useful, homeless, hopeless
    ●-ish“如……的;有……特征的”foolish childish selfish
    ●-ive“有……傾向的”active attractive expensive
    ●-en“由……制成的”golden wooden woolen
    ●-ous“有(性質)的”famous, dangerous, poisonous
    ●-ly“有……性質的”friendly yearly daily
    ●-y“構成形容詞”noisy dusty cloudy

    (2)名詞后綴

    ●-er / or“表人或用具” farmer, baker, visitor, professor, cooker, container
    ●-ese “某國(人)的”Chinese, Japanese
    ●-ian“某國、某地人;精通……的人”musician, Asian, Russian, technician
    ●-ist “某種主義或職業者”physicist, scientist, communist,socialist
    ●-ess “表女性,雌性”hostess, actress, princess
    ●-ment“行為或其狀態”government, movement, achievement
    ●-ness“性質,狀態”illness, sadness, carelessness
    ●-tion“動作,過程,結果”invention, organization, translation
    ●-ance/ ence“抽象;行為、性質、狀態”importance, appearance, absence, existence
    ●-th“性質、情況”depth, warmth, truth
    ●-ful“(滿的)量”handful, spoonful, mouthful
    ●-(a)bility“抽象、性質、狀態”possibility, disability, reliability
    ●-al“過程、狀態”survival, arrival, approval
    ●-y“性質、情況”modesty, delivery, honesty
    ●-dom“處于……狀態;性質”freedom, boredom
    ●-age“狀態,行為,身份及其結果”courage, storage, marriage

    (3)動詞后綴

    ●-fy / ify “使得;變得” simplify, beautify, purify
    ●-en“使成為;變得” shorten, deepen, sadden
    ●-ize“使成為” apologize, realize, specialize

    (4)副詞后綴

    ●-ly“方式,程度” freely, truly, angrily
    ●-ward(s) “向……” towards, forward, upwards

    (5)數詞后綴

    ●-teen“十幾” fourteen, eighteen, thirteen
    ●-ty“整十位數” forty, fifty, sixty
    ●-th “序數詞” twelfth, twentieth


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