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  3. 您的位置:首頁 > 高考英語 > 高考語法 > 資料詳情
    高考英語語法:構詞法必考點歸納
    編輯:admin 時間:2019/11/12 11:23:28 來源:中學英語網

    英語中的構詞法主要有三種,即轉化法、合成法和派生法。

    一、轉化法

    在英語中,一個單詞由一種詞性轉化為另一種或幾種詞性而詞形不變的方法叫做轉化法。

    1. 動詞轉化為名詞

    Let me have a try.
    讓我試試。
    They are only allowed to sell soft drinksat school.
    在學校里只準許他們出售不含酒精的飲料。

    2. 名詞轉化為動詞

    He shoulderedhis way through the crowd.
    他用肩膀推開人群前進。
    The smell from the kitchen made his mouth water.
    從廚房傳來的氣味使他流口水。

    3. 形容詞轉化為動詞

    We will try our best to betterour living conditions.
    我們要盡力改善我們的生活狀況。
    They tried to perfectthe working conditions.
    他們努力改善工作條件。

    4. 形容詞轉化為名詞

    He didn’t know the difference between rightand wrong.
    他不辨是非。
    The oldin our village are living a happy life.
    我們村的老年人過著幸福的生活。

    5. 形容詞轉化為副詞

    How longhave you lived there?
    你在那兒住多久了?

    6. 個別詞在一定場合中可轉化為名詞

    Warm clothes are a mustin the mountains.
    穿暖和的衣服到山區去是必須的。
    Life is full of upsand downs.
    人生有得意時也有失意時。
    His argument contains too many ifsand buts.
    他的辯論中含有太多的“如果”和“但是”。

    二、合成法

    由兩個或兩個以上的單詞連在一起合成一個新詞,這種構詞法叫做合成法,合成的詞叫做合成詞。合成詞一般看其詞,知其意。

    1. 合成名詞

    名詞/代詞+名詞 newspaper blood-test she-wolf
    動詞+名詞 typewriter pickpocket daybreak
    形容詞+名詞 greenhouse highway
    副詞+名詞 overcoat outside
    名詞+v.-ing/v.-ing +名詞 handwriting reading-room freezing-point
    動詞+副詞/ 副詞+ 動詞 breakthrough get-together outbreak outcome
    名詞+介詞+名詞 sister-in-law editor-in-chief

    2. 合成形容詞

    名詞+形容詞/形容詞+名詞 world-famous duty-free large-scale long- term
    副詞+形容詞 over-anxious evergreen
    名詞+過去分詞 man-made sun-burnt
    名詞+現在分詞 peace-loving English-speaking
    形容詞+現在分詞 good-looking easy-going
    副詞+過去分詞 well-informed widespread
    副詞+現在分詞 hardworking far-reaching
    形容詞+名詞+ed warm-hearted absent-minded
    數詞+名詞+ed three-legged ten-storied
    數詞+名詞 one-way five–star
    數詞+名詞+形容詞 ten-year-old 800-meter-long
    名詞+to+名詞 face –to-face door - to -door

    3. 合成動詞

    名詞+動詞 baby-sit sleepwalk
    副詞+動詞 outnumber underestimate overwork
    形容詞+動詞 whitewash

    4. 合成副詞

    形容詞+名詞 meanwhile anyway
    形容詞+副詞 everywhere anyhow
    副詞+副詞 however
    介詞+名詞 beforehand overhead
    介詞+副詞 forever

    5. 合成代詞

    代詞賓格+self/selves herself themselves
    物主代詞+self/selves myself yourselves
    形容詞+名詞 anything nothing

    6. 合成介詞

    副詞+名詞 inside outside
    介詞+副詞 without within
    副詞+介詞 into

    三、派生法

    由一個詞加上前綴或后綴構成一個與原單詞意義相近或截然相反的新詞叫做派生法。

    1. 前綴

    除少數前綴外,前綴一般改變單詞的意義,但不改變單詞的詞性。

    (1)表示否定意義的前綴

    un- unhappy unfinished undress
    dis- disagree disbelieve
    in- [il-(在字母l前),im- (在字母m,b,p前),ir- (在字母r前)] inaccurate illegal impolite imbalance irregular
    mis- misbehave mislead mistake
    non- nonstop nonsmoker

    (2)表示其他意義的前綴

    en- “使……”enrich enlarge encourage
    inter- “相互”international intercontinental
    re- “再,又,重”rethink retell recycle
    tele- “遠程的”telescope telephone telegraph
    auto- “自動的”automatic automobile
    co- “共同”coworker cooperate coexist
    anti- “反對,抵抗”antiwar antifreeze antinuclear
    multi- “多”multistory multicultural multicolor
    bi- “雙,二”bicycle bilingual bilateral
    micro- “極小的,微小的”microwave microcomputer
    over- “太多,過分”overwork overdo overestimate
    self- “自己,本身”self-centered self-confident self-control
    under- “在……下面,……下的,不足的”underline, underground, underestimate, underrate

    2. 后綴

    (1)形容詞后綴

    -able “可……的,具有……的”acceptable drinkable knowledgeable reasonable
    -al “與……有關的”physical, magical, political
    -an “屬于某地方的人”American African
    -ern “方向”southern, northern, eastern
    -ful/ less “(沒)有……的”helpful, useful, homeless, hopeless
    -ish “如……的;有……特征的”foolish childish selfish
    -ive “有……傾向的”active attractive expensive
    -en “由……制成的”golden wooden woolen
    -ous “有(性質)的”famous, dangerous, poisonous
    -ly “有……性質的”friendly yearly daily
    -y “構成形容詞”noisy dusty cloudy

    (2)名詞后綴

    -er / or “表人或用具” farmer, baker, visitor, professor, cooker, container
    -ese “某國(人)的”Chinese, Japanese
    -ian “某國、某地人;精通……的人”musician, Asian, Russian, technician
    -ist “某種主義或職業者”physicist, scientist, communist,socialist
    -ess “表女性,雌性”hostess, actress, princess
    -ment “行為或其狀態”government, movement, achievement
    -ness “性質,狀態”illness, sadness, carelessness
    -tion “動作,過程,結果”invention, organization, translation
    -ance/ ence “抽象;行為、性質、狀態”importance, appearance, absence, existence
    -th “性質、情況” depth, warmth, truth
    -ful “(滿的)量”handful, spoonful, mouthful
    -(a)bility “抽象、性質、狀態”possibility, disability, reliability
    -al “過程、狀態”survival, arrival, approval
    -y “性質、情況”modesty, delivery, honesty
    -dom “處于……狀態;性質”freedom, boredom
    -age “狀態,行為,身份及其結果”courage, storage, marriage

    (3)動詞后綴

    -fy / ify “使得;變得” simplify, beautify, purify
    -en “使成為;變得” shorten, deepen, sadden
    -ize “使成為” apologize, realize, specialize

    (4)副詞后綴

    -ly “方式,程度” freely, truly, angrily
    -ward(s) “向……” towards, forward, upwards

    (5)數詞后綴

    -teen “十幾” fourteen, eighteen, thirteen
    -ty “整十位數” forty, fifty, sixty
    -th “序數詞” twelfth, twentieth


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